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International Tribunals

Commission for Environmental Cooperation
The Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) is an international organization created by Canada, Mexico and the United States under the North American Free Trade Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. The CEC was established to address regional environmental concerns, help prevent potential trade and environmental conflicts, and promote the effective enforcement of environmental law.

Court of Justice & Court of First Instance of the European Communities
The Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance of the European Union have the task of ensuring that the law is observed in the interpretation and application of the Treaties constituting the European Communities and the provisions adopted by the competent Community institutions.

European Court of Human Rights
The European Court of Human Rights aims to apply and to protect the civil and political rights of the continent's citizens. These principles are set out in the European Convention on Human Rights, a landmark treaty that was drawn up in the aftermath of World War II.

European Free Trade Agreement Court
The European Free Trade Association Court is a supranational court covering the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members who are also members of the European Economic Area (EEA). At present EFTA States are Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The aim of the EEA Agreement is to guarantee the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital; to provide equal conditions of competition; and to abolish discrimination on grounds of nationality in all 30 EEA States -- the 27 EU States and the three EFTA States.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights was created by the Organization of American States (OAS) as an autonomous judicial institution charged to apply and interpret the American Convention on Human Rights, a treaty drafted by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in 1967 and adopted by the OAS in 1969. The Court has adjudicatory and advisory jurisdiction.

International Chamber of Commerce International Court of Arbitration
The ICC International Court of Arbitration is a body which hears and resolves private disputes between parties. Its voluntary rule-writing for business spreads best practice in areas as varied as banking, marketing, anti-corruption and environmental management. Their policy-making and advocacy work keeps national governments, the United Nations system and other global bodies apprised of the views of the world business on some of the most pressing issues of the day.

International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. The Court has a dual role: to settle in accordance with international law the legal disputes submitted to it by nations and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by duly authorized international organs and agencies.

International Criminal Court
The International Criminal Court is the first ever permanent, treaty based, international criminal court established to promote the rule of law and ensure that the gravest international crimes do not go unpunished.

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
The United Nations Security Council created the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in late 1994 to help contribute to the process of national reconciliation in Rwanda and to help maintain peace in the region. The ICTR prosecutes persons responsible for genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda during the 1994 calendar year.

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
The United Nations Security Council created the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in 1993. The statute establishing the ICTY gives it the power to prosecute persons responsible for the serious violations of the international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991, including breaches of the Geneva Conventions, genocide, and crimes against humanity.

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an independent international organization, established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. An international treaty adopted in 1982, the Convention defines the outer limits to which coastal nations can claim jurisdiction over their adjacent waters, provides regulations for maritime issues of potential international dispute, and set up the International Seabed Authority, which is devoted to organizing and controlling activities in the deep seabed.

Permanent Court of Arbitration
The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) offers services for resolving disputes between states, between states and private parties, as well as disputes involving intergovernmental organizations. These services include arbitration, conciliation, fact-finding commissions of inquiry, and mediation. In addition, the International Bureau of the PCA offers hearing facilities and ancillary administrative services to tribunals operating ad hoc or under the rules of other institutions, and is available to facilitate arbitrations conducted under the UNCITRAL Arbitral Rules established in 1976.

Special Court for Sierra Leone
The Special Court for Sierra Leone was set up jointly by the Government of Sierra Leone and the United Nations. It is responsible for trying those accused of crimes against humanity, violations of Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II, other serious violations of international humanitarian law and crimes under the laws of Sierra Leone.

World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration & Mediation Center
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Arbitration and Mediation Center was established in 1994 to offer services for the resolution of international commercial disputes between private parties. Developed by experts in cross-border dispute settlement, the procedures offered by the Center are appropriate for technology, entertainment, and other disputes involving intellectual property.

World Trade Organization Appellate Body
The World Trade Organization (WTO) resolves trade disputes under the Dispute Settlement Understanding to ensure that international trade flows smoothly.